• Indigenous peoples in Sápmi

    Indigenous peoples in Sápmi

    The Sámi people are the indigenous people of the northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula and large parts of the Kola Peninsula and live in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia. They number between 50,000 and 100,000.
  • People

    The Sámi peoples spreads across the countries Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.
    It is estimated that there are 50,000-10,000 Sámi people.
  • Politics

    Politically, the Sámi people are represented by three Sámi parliaments, one in Sweden, one in Norway and one in Finland, whereas on the Russian side they are organised into NGOs.
  • Challenges

    The main challenges for the Sámi peoples concerns extractive industry operations.

The Indigenous World 2021: Sápmi

Sápmi is the Sámi people’s own name for their traditional territory. The Sámi people are the Indigenous people of the northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula and large parts of the Kola Peninsula and they live in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia. There is no reliable information on the population of the Sámi people; they are, however, estimated to number between 50,000-100,000.

Around 20,000 live in Sweden, which is approximately 0.22% of Sweden’s total population of around nine million. The north-western part of the Swedish territory is the Sámi people’s traditional territory. The Sámi reindeer herders, small farmers, hunters, gatherers and fishers traditionally use these lands. Around 50-65,000 live in Norway, between 1.06% and 1.38% of the total Norwegian population of approximately 4.7 million. Around 8,000 live in Finland, which is approximately 0.16% of the total Finnish population of around five million. Around 2,000 live in Russia, which is a very small proportion of the total population of Russia.

Politically, the Sámi people are represented by three Sámi parliaments, one in Sweden, one in Norway and one in Finland, while on the Russian side they are organized into non-governmental organizations (NGOs). In 2000, the three Sámi parliaments established a joint council of representatives called the Sámi Parliamentary Council. The Sámi Parliamentary Council is not to be confused with the Sámi Council, which is a central Sámi NGO representing large national Sámi associations (NGOs) in all four countries. There are also other important Sámi institutions, both regional and local, inter alia, the Sámi University of Applied Sciences, which is a research and higher education institution dedicated to the Sámi society’s needs and where the Sámi language is mainly used throughout the academic system. Sweden, Norway and Finland voted in favour of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) in September 2007, while Russia abstained.

COVID-19 impacts on the Sámi people[1]

The Indigenous Sámi people’s history has been shaped by the impact of pandemics over the centuries. There are still some Sámi elders who have survived earlier pandemics and who have been able to share their experiences with younger generations in Sámi society.

Increased State security measures in Finland, Norway and Sweden imposed during the emergency situation caused challenges for Sámi and their communities, and particularly Sámi families divided by national borders. Family and social relations have been strongly disrupted, and this has affected family life, Sámi children and elders in particular. Family members have mobilized and organized provisions of food and medicines to elders and family members who have self-isolated. Sámi organizations and institutions have been sharing strategies with each other across the borders, making sure that travelling to the most vulnerable communities was limited to necessary transport of goods, medicine and food.

Both as a consequence of the pandemic and lockdowns, as well as of the crisis caused by deep snow and ice covering grazing lands, reindeer have been prevented from obtaining sufficient food by natural grazing. The crisis persisted the whole winter, and a large number of animals would have died of starvation if the Government of Norway had not paid for crisis measures such as procurement and transport of supplemental feed.[2] The reindeer meat market, consisting of a small number of reindeer meat buyers and slaughterhouses, was limited due to export/import restrictions.

Another disruption was reported in reindeer herding areas due to the high number of domestic tourists in the mountains, as they disturb herds. With foreign tourists absent, there has been an increasing trend in "homesteading"- tourism. Reindeer industry organizations in Sweden have reported that it is very difficult to detect these disturbances in economic terms, but they have requested assessments of the economic impacts of this homesteading tourism on Sámi homeland areas.

Sámi community leaders expressed a clear aim to align with national and global health directives, putting a wide range of emergency measures into effect that have affected both the social and family lives, livelihoods, political processes and economy of Sámi traditional and cultural industries. Lockdowns, quarantine and other isolation measures imposed as a response to the pandemic have caused additional hardships for the Sámi people’s access to basic economic, cultural and social rights. At the same time, however, reports from the Sámi areas also indicate that the lockdown has been a positive opportunity for Sámi to reconnect with their traditional lands and to practice Sámi culture.

COVID-19 has amplified issues both of preparedness and vulnerability in Sámi communities. Statements from Sámi representatives at the regional dialogue of the UN Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Issues (EMRIP) stressed the fact that, according to Article 36 of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), Indigenous Peoples, in particular those who are divided across international borders, have the right to maintain and develop contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with their own members as well as other peoples across borders.[3] The Sámi Parliament of Norway informed EMRIP that border traffic had been restricted since March 2020 and that national emergency measures and restrictions had had a significant impact on Sámi society. As freedom of movement is a crucial factor for Sámi industries and their profitability, closed borders have challenged the availability of social and health care services in Sámi homeland areas, as well as cross-border Sámi education. Sámi representatives also reminded states of the Sámi people’s right to self-determination and the right to participate in decision-making in matters concerning the Sámi, and that these rights should not be impaired even in extraordinary circumstances.

Lack of data and information in Sámi languages

The lack of disaggregated data on Sámi people has long been one of the main challenges when monitoring the implementation of Sámi human rights. In its submission to the first report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, Francisco Calí Tzay, to the General Assembly, on the impact of COVID-19 on the rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Sámi Parliament in Sweden pointed out that there was no disaggregated data on the Sámi and COVID-19 health impacts available within the Swedish part of Sápmi.[4] This is very much the case also in Finland and Norway. Moreover, the Sámi Parliament argues that since there is no official statistical data on Sámi health, wellbeing, economic development etc., it is challenging to present a comprehensive picture of rights recognition, discrimination, livelihoods etc.

Public information on the pandemic and emergency measures have generally been provided in the majority languages of Finland, Norway and Sweden but there are also some leaflets, posters and information online in Sámi languages.[5] The Sámi Parliaments in Finland, Norway and Sweden have compiled information about COVID-19 on their websites, and other Sámi institutions have also translated relevant information about national measures for their Sámi speaking staff.[6] The Nordic governments responsible for providing information about the emergency measures failed to provide timely and adequate information in Sámi languages although several UN bodies, including the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), did highlight the importance of information in appropriate languages, and of involving people from within Indigenous communities to help conceptualize prevention and care strategies. UNESCO recognizes that emergency responses are enhanced where there are efficient mechanisms for dialogue between Indigenous Peoples and national authorities to implement culturally appropriate responses to current and future impacts of the pandemic.[7]

None of the Nordic countries established specific spaces for participation and dialogue to address the current emergency and its impact on Sámi communities. Sámi representatives argued that insufficient information in Indigenous Sámi languages was causing a serious risk to health.

Sámi Truth and Reconciliation Commissions

There is still some progress in matters relating to reconciliation and public investigations into the effects of colonial policies, discrimination and oppression of the Sámi people in Finland, Norway and Sweden. In December 2019, the Sámi Parliament in Finland proposed the establishment of a Sámi Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Finland (TRC).

In May 2020, the Sámi Parliament and the Siida Assembly of the Skolt Sámi in Finland consulted Sámi organizations and communities in Finland and received 16 proposals for expert candidates for the TRC. In December 2020, the Sámi Parliament decided to propose, Heikki Hyvãrinen and Miina Seurajãrvi for the position of commissioner on the TRC, while the Siida Assembly of the East Sámi in Finland proposed Irja Jefremoff.[8] The Finnish state will appoint two commissioners after consultation with the Sámi Parliament, before then establishing the TRC. The process of establishing a Sámi TRC in Finland has been delayed due to COVID-19 and obstacles created by public health directives in response to the pandemic. Further, it takes time to secure culturally appropriate psychosocial support services to accompany those participating in the work of the commission.[9]

The Sámi in Finland have used the TRCs in Canada and several countries in South America as models during TRC preparation in Finland. Two of the commissioners who served on Canada’s TRC, Marie Wilson and Wilton Littlechild, as well as Peruvian sociologist Eduardo González, have all been involved in advising the Sámi in Finland.[10]

There are also preparations for establishing a Sámi TRC in Sweden, and the Sámi Parliament in Sweden, like their sister institution in Finland, has also emphasized the importance of obtaining the free, prior and informed consent of their own Sámi people before taking any decision and embarking on negotiations with the government. COVID-19 has affected the process as the planned community meetings had to be downscaled, allowing for a smaller number of Sámi representatives to participate in physical meetings. A steering group with seven members and a reference group with participants from Sámi organizations should ensure broad participation from Sámi civil society, individuals and interest groups.[11]

In December 2020, the Sámi Parliament in Sweden sent out a letter to all Sámi registered on the parliament’s electoral roll asking for their views on the establishment of the TRC.[12] The Sámi Parliament’s preparations and consultations with Sámi communities and organizations should be complete by March 2021, and are being funded by the Swedish Ministry of Culture.[13]

As reported in The Indigenous World 2020, there is already a TRC in Norway with a mandate that includes the Indigenous Sámi, Kven minority, Forest Finns and Norwegian Finns minority.[14] The Norwegian TRC should also take into consideration the parallel processes in Finland and Sweden but this may prove difficult given that the processes in Finland and Sweden are delayed, mainly due to COVID-19.

Industrialization on Indigenous Sámi territories

The Sámi homeland territories are facing many challenges due to industrialization. The extensive development of the wind power industry on lands used by Sámi reindeer herders and on sites sacred to the Sámi is causing many conflicts between the Sámi and the private sector. Many Sámi see windfarms as a threat to their ancient cultural practices, as turbines of up to 200 metres tall can stretch for kilometres and are often built in areas used for reindeer herding. Studies and Indigenous local knowledge show that reindeer prefer to avoid areas with wind turbines. Establishing sites for the wind industry also requires the building of roads and other infrastructure, often in areas with little or no existing infrastructure.

There are numerous cases of the development of the wind power industry in Sámi areas without the free, prior and informed consent of Sámi rights holders (read more in The Indigenous World 2020).[15] Wind power projects have often been supported by local municipalities through one-off contributions of property taxes, income taxes, promises of employment for local people, land rental payments, sponsorship funds and more.

Øyfjellet windfarm and Davvi windfarm in Norway are two of the projects being strongly opposed by the Sámi as they disturb migration routes. In September 2020, reindeer herders from Jillen-Njaarke in Nordland lost their case against the Øyfjellet wind park when the court ruled against the reindeer herders and upheld the original licence. Øyfjellet wind park is being built by the Swedish-German company Elous Wind. They have a licence to construct 72 wind turbines in this area. The Sámi reindeer herders claimed that the establishment of Øyfjellet wind park was violating the Reindeer Husbandry Act of 2007 and would obstruct the use of the legally-protected traditional migration routes of the reindeer. They argued that the project was disrupting the Sámi community’s sustainable way of living, which protects their land.

As a consequence of the loss of grazing land, the Sámi fear that the state authorities will require herd reductions. According to reports from Protect Sápmi, a certain amount of land has to be calculated for a certain amount of reindeer.[16] This would mean that one or several traditional Sámi reindeer herders will no longer have a sufficient economic basis for their livelihood.[17] The reindeer herders in Jillen-Njaarke have taken their case to the court of appeal as they have not managed to reach an agreement with Eolus Wind on measures to secure the rights of the Sámi.[18]

The Davvi Wind Park owned by Grenselandet AS is planning to establish a wind power site in Laksefjordvidda, one of the largest wilderness areas in Norway. This Arctic environment is undisturbed by industry and buildings. The wind farm is planned to consist of 100-267 wind turbines with a total installed capacity of up to 800 MW. The industrial site covers an area of approx. 78 km2. The Finnish mega energy corporation St1 is listed as one of the owners of Grenselandet AS, together with Vindkraft Nord and Ny Energi. This area is very important for the Sámi Indigenous people. The sacred mountain Rásttigáisá is located near the area planned for the wind farm, which includes areas important for the reindeer as a refuge from troublesome insects. Reindeer herding in this area of Troms and Finnmark county is already under severe pressure from a number of development projects.

One of the largest Norwegian environmental organizations, Naturvernforbundet, is also strongly opposed to this project, referring to the severe harm it will cause the Sámi reindeer herding livelihood.[19] In spite of claims from the Sámi Parliament and environmental organizations, when amending the decision-making processes for licences for new wind power projects in Norway, the Norwegian Parliament did not include any proposals for the enhanced participation of the Sámi Parliament or Sámi rights holders in these kind of processes..[20]

The Girjas landmark decision

On 23 January 2020, a historic verdict was passed down by the Swedish Supreme Court in the Girjas case (Case No.: T 853-18) (for background see The Indigenous World 2020).[21],[22] The Girjas Sámi District (čearru/sameby – the Girjas Sámi reindeer herding community), located in Gãllivare, northern Sweden, won their case against the Swedish state on the rights to manage hunting and fishing within the areas traditionally used and occupied by Girjas Sámi Village.[23]

The ruling by the Supreme Court of Sweden has put an end to a more than 10-year dispute between Girjas Sámi District and the Swedish state. [24] In its ruling, the Supreme Court concludes that: Girjas Sámi District may grant small-game and fishing rights in the area without the consent of the state and that the state is not permitted to grant such rights. The Court was unanimous in this verdict. The Supreme Court did not examine the issue of ownership rights to Girjas district land, as Girjas Sámi District did not make a claim for ownership of the land.

The Swedish state claimed that, as the landowner, it was the state alone that should retain hunting and fishing rights in Girjas district, including the right to grant hunting and fishing rights to others. The Supreme Court ruled that the Girjas community retained the sole right to manage the rights to hunting and fishing in this area based on possession since time immemorial, including the right to lease these rights to others. Girjas Sámi District conducts reindeer husbandry, including in a very large area above the cultivation line in Norrbotten County, northern Sweden. As a consequence of this, the state does not retain hunting and fishing rights in these areas that would normally pertain to ownership of the land and watercourses. Pursuant to the Swedish Reindeer Husbandry Act (SFS 1971:437), members of a Sámi district/village have the right to hunt and fish in their own district. The Act also contains provisions stating that neither the Sámi district nor its members are permitted to grant hunting and fishing rights to others; rather, as a rule it is the county administrative board that grants such rights. This regulation has remained largely unchanged since the first Reindeer Grazing Act in Sweden of 1886.

What also makes the Girjas case so interesting from a pan-Sámi and international perspective is the way the Supreme Court of Sweden refers to ILO Convention No. 169 on the rights of Indigenous Peoples, despite the fact that Sweden has not ratified this convention. By referring to ILO 169, the Girjas case will also be of great legal value for Norwegian courts, as Norway is a signatory to ILO 169. As scholars have said, the Girjas judgement is indeed a landmark decision as it develops a deeper understanding of what Sámi rights are, not only according to Swedish law but also across our Nordic legal community.[25] As there are a great number of Sámi cases in the courts in Norway, many Sámi reindeer communities are following the development of Sámi law in Sweden with great interest. Experts on Sámi and Swedish law have analyzed the case, and concluded inter alia that:

this case signifies a considerable development in the area of Sámi law. In its decision, the Supreme Court made some adjustments to the age-old doctrine of immemorial prescription and provided insights into how historic evidence should be evaluated when the claimant is an Indigenous people. A common motivator for these adjustments is an enhanced awareness of international standards protecting Indigenous peoples and minorities.[26]

As a consequence of the Girjas judgement, the Government of Sweden has decided to consider possible changes to the 1971 Reindeer Husbandry Act of Sweden in order to adapt the legislation to the current situation in Sweden. [27]

During the 10-year trial, but increasingly since the historic win in the Supreme Court, the Girjas Sámi community and also Sámi reindeer herders more generally in northern Sweden have received death threats, been exposed to hate speech, violence and there have also been reports of several incidents in which reindeer have been tormented or killed.[28] Sámi language road signs have been removed and property belonging to the Sámi reindeer herding community in Girjas and other Sámi reindeer communities has been damaged. The Swedish police received a number of complaints of death threats and hate speech immediately following the verdict.[29] For the Indigenous Sámi reindeer herders, this is clearly an act of hatred and violence, hatred which unfortunately was present long before the start of the Girjas case.[30]

Acknowledgement

I would like to acknowledge those who have passed away because of the COVID-19 pandemic and express my heartfelt compassion to their loved ones.


Laila Susanne Vars is the Chair of EMRIP and its member from the Arctic. She is an Indigenous Sámi lawyer with a PhD in international law and is a former member and Vice President of the Sámi Parliament in Norway. She is currently the President of the Sámi University of Applied Sciences – Sámi allaskuvla.

This article is part of the 35th edition of The Indigenous World, a yearly overview produced by IWGIA that serves to document and report on the developments Indigenous Peoples have experienced.  Find The Indigenous World 2021 in full here

 

 

Notes and references 

[1] This article covers developments in the Sámi homeland areas in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The Sámi traditional territory also include areas in the Kola Peninsula, Russia.

[2] Government of Norway. “Additional financial measures to mitigate the economic effects of the coronavirus crisis.” 3 April 2020. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/additional-financial-measures-to-mitigate-the-economic-effects-of-the-coronavirus-crisis/id2696548/

[3] OHCHR. “The 13th Session/ Regional meetings of the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: The impact of COVID-19 on the rights of indigenous peoples under the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.” 30 November-4 December 2020. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/IPeoples/EMRIP/Pages/Session13.aspx

[4] Sámediggi. “Submission from the Sámi Parliament in Sweden to the Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples to the General Assembly Impact of COVID-19 on indigenous peoples.” 22 June 2020, p. 1. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/IPeoples/SR/COVID-19/IndigenousCSOs/SWEDEN_Sami%20Parliament%20Sweden.pdf; See also OHCHR and Sámediggi. “Statement by Per-Olof Nutti, President of the Sámi Parliament in Sweden at EMRIP virtual regional meeting for the Arctic, Central and Eastern Europe, Russian Federation, Central Asia and Transcaucasia.” Sámi Parliament, Sweden, 2 December 2020. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/IPeoples/EMRIP/Pages/Session13.aspx

[5] See endnote i, see examples from Folkhälsomyndigheten (Sweden). “Om covid-19 på olika språk.” 2 November 2020. https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/smittskydd-beredskap/utbrott/aktuella-utbrott/covid-19/om-covid-19-pa-olika-sprak/; Krisinformation.se (Sweden). “Fler språk/more languages.” 27 January 2021. https://www.krisinformation.se/detta-kan-handa/handelser-och-storningar/20192/myndigheterna-om-det-nya-coronaviruset/andra-sprakother-languages/fler-sprak; Helsedirektoratet (Norway). “Samisk.” 2021. https://www.helsedirektoratet.no/search?searchquery=samisk; Valtioneuvosto (Finland). “Monikieliset korona-aineistot.” https://valtioneuvosto.fi/tietoa-koronaviruksesta/aineistoja-kielilla#kieli-pohjoissaame

[6] For instance, see Sámediggi. “DIEHTU KORONAVIRUSA BIRRA SÁMEGILLII.” Sámi Parliament in Finland, 2021. https://www.samediggi.fi/diehtu-koronavirusa-birra-samegillii/?lang=dav&lang=dav, Sametinget. “Sametinget och coronaviruset.” Sámi Parliament in Sweden, 2021. https://sametinget.se/146554 ; Sametinget. “Samleside for informasjon i forbindelse med korona-pandemien.” Sámi Parliament in Norway, 2021. https://sametinget.no/aktuelt/samleside-for-informasjon-i-forbindelse-med-korona-pandemien.3805.aspx

[7] UNESCO. “COVID-19 recovery and indigenous peoples.” 5 August 2020. https://en.unesco.org/news/covid-19-recovery-and-indigenous-peoples

[8] Sámediggi. “Press release from the Sámi Parliament of Finland.” 18 December 2020. https://www.samediggi.fi/samiid-duohtavuoda-ja-soabadankomisuvdna/?lang=dav

[9] Quinn, Eilís. “Sami Parliament in Finland agrees more time needed for Truth and Reconciliation Commission preparation.” The Barents Observer, 23 February 2021. https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/arctic/2021/02/sami-parliament-finland-agrees-more-time-needed-truth-and-reconciliation-commission

[10] Sámediggi. “Press realease from the Sámi Parliament of Finland.” 18 December 2020. https://www.samediggi.fi/samiid-duohtavuoda-ja-soabadankomisuvdna/?lang=dav

[11] Sametinget (Sámi Parliament of Sweden). “Förankringsarbetet startar.” 13 October 2020. https://sametinget.se/forarbete-sanningskommission

[12] Sametinget (Sámi Parliament of Sweden). “Brevutskick om förberedelser inför en sanningskommission.” 19 January 2021. https://sametinget.se/154372

[13] Regeringskansliet (Government Offices of Sweden). “

Sametinget får medel för en förankringsprocess inför kommande sanningskommission.” Press release from the Swedish Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Employment, 9 June 2020.

https://www.regeringen.se/pressmeddelanden/2020/06/sametinget-far-medel-for-en-forankringsprocess-infor-kommande-sanningskommission/

[14] Vars, Laila Susanne. “Sápmi.” In The Indigenous World 2020, edited by Dwayne Mamo, p. 533. IWGIA, 2020. https://iwgia.org/images/yearbook/2020/IWGIA_The_Indigenous_World_2020.pdf

[15] Read more in Vars, Laila Susanne. “Sápmi.” In The Indigenous World 2020, edited by Dwayne Mamo, 526-535. IWGIA, 2020. https://iwgia.org/images/yearbook/2020/IWGIA_The_Indigenous_World_2020.pdf

[16] The Protect Sápmi Foundation was founded by the Sami Reindeer Herders’ Association of Norway and the National Union of the Swedish Sami People. The purpose of the Foundation is stated in Section 2 of its Statutes:

" The Foundation's purpose is to maintain and develop the Sami cultural community, including the promotion of the interests of Sami industries, adapted to the requirements of modern society. The Foundation shall build and maintain a strong and professional organization in order to provide assistance in securing the interests, land rights, resource rights and potentialities for development of Sami land rights holders.” Protect Sápmi. “About Protect Sápmi.” 2021. http://protectsapmi.com/engelsk/about-protect-sapmi/; See also

Blom, Andreas, Anders Johansen Eira, and Isak Henrik Eira. “REINDRIFTSFAGLIG UTREDNING

i forhold til Davvi vindkraftverk.” Protect Sápmi, December 2017.

https://motvind.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Reindriftsfaglig-utredning_Protect-Sapmi_31122017.pdf

[17] https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/latest-news/norway-wind-park-allegedly-threatens-herding-livelihoods-of-indigenous-saami-community/

[18] Nilsen Trygstad, Andreas and Kari Skeie. “Reineierne hevder de ble tilbudt 5000 kroner per vindturbin i møte med vindkraftutbygger.” NRK, 18 June 2020. https://www.nrk.no/nordland/eolus-wind-haper-pa-enighet-med-appfjell-og-reinbeitedistrikt-uten-at-det-blir-rettssak-1.15057870 ; See also a similar case in Karagiannopoulos, Lefteris. “Norway to build wind farm despite concerns of reindeer herders.” Reuters, 21 December 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-norway-wind-un-idUSKCN1OK1WS

[19] Naturvernforbundet. “Si nei til vindkraft i Finnmarks natur!” Letter to St1 and Grenselandet AS dated 24 February 2020. Updated 23 June 2020. https://naturvernforbundet.no/davvi/category4063.html

[20] Government of Norway. “Meld. St. 28 (2019-2020) Melding til Stortinget (White Paper to the Norwegian Parliament), Vindkraft på land: Endringer i konsesjonsbehandlingen.” 19 June 2020. https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/meld.-st.-28-20192020/id2714775/

Supreme Court of Sweden. “The Girjas Case- Press realease.” Case No.: T 853-18, 4 September 2020. https://www.domstol.se/en/supreme-court/news-archive/a-decision-on-cancellation-of-real-estate-sales-agreements/

[22] For background see Vars, Laila Susanne. “Sápmi.” In The Indigenous World 2020, edited by Dwayne Mamo, 526-535. IWGIA, 2020. https://iwgia.org/images/yearbook/2020/IWGIA_The_Indigenous_World_2020.pdf

[23] Bye, Hilde-Gunn. “Girjas Sami Village Won Swedish Supreme Court Case. May Have Consequences in Other Countries.” High North News, 28 January 2020. https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/girjas-sami-village-won-swedish-supreme-court-case-may-have-consequences-other-countries

[24] Ravna, Øyvind. “A Sámi Community Wins Case against the Swedish State in the Supreme Court.” In Debates on Arctic Law and Politics, Arctic Review on Law and Politics 11 (2020): 19–21. https://arcticreview.no/index.php/arctic/article/view/2173/4031

[25] Ibid.

[26] Allard, Christina and Malin Brannstrom, “Girjas Reindeer Herding Community v. Sweden: Analysing the Merits of the Girjas Case.” In Debates on Arctic Law and Politics, Arctic Review on Law and Politics 12 (2021): 56-79. https://arcticreview.no/index.php/arctic/article/view/2678/5159

[27] Regeringskansliet (Government Offices of Sweden). “Utredning kommer tillsättas för en översyn av rennäringslagstiftningen.” Press realease from the Ministry of Industry, 23 July 2020. https://www.regeringen.se/pressmeddelanden/2020/07/utredning-kommer-tillsattas-for-en-oversyn-av-rennaringslagstiftningen/

[28] DeGeorge, Krestia. “After winning a historic court victory, Sweden’s Sami face attacks, including death threats.” Arctic Today, 30 January 2020. https://www.arctictoday.com/after-winning-a-historic-court-victory-swedens-sami-face-attacks-include-death-threats/; See also Orange, Richard. “Reindeer found dead in Lapland in apparent backlash against indigenous herders' land rights win.” The Telegraph, 26 February 2020. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/02/26/reindeer-found-dead-lapland-apparent-backlash-against-indigenous/

[29] Västerbottens-Kuriren. “Polisen: Tar samers oro på största allvar.” 29 January 2020. https://www.vk.se/2020-01-29/polisen-tar-samers-oro-pa-storsta-allvar

[30] Civil Rights Defenders,. “Civil Rights Defenders Condemns Increased Racism and Violence Against the Sami People After Verdict in the Girjas Case.” Press Release 13 March 2020. https://crd.org/2020/03/13/civil-rights-defenders-condemns-increased-racism-and-violence-against-the-sami-people-after-verdict-in-the-girjas-case/; See also Dagens Nyheter. “Så har den nya striden om fjället väckt samehatet till liv. ” 20 April 2020. https://www.dn.se/nyheter/sverige/sa-har-den-nya-striden-om-fjallet-vackt-samehatet-till-liv/

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